Today, infertility problems are tremendously raising among newly married couples. Therefore, the fertilityworld best fertility clinic in Aizawl (Mizoram) is bridging the gap of emotions for all couples by providing all the possible male and female infertility treatments at an affordable cost.
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Available Infertility Treatments in Aizawl, Mizoram
- Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) fertility treatments.
- Invitro fertilization (IVF) fertility treatments.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
- Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT)
- Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
- Surgical Sperm Extractions
- Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET)
- Semen Analysis Testing
- Laser-Assisted Hatching
- Donor-Assisted Infertility Treatments
- Egg, Sperm, and embryo cryopreservation.
Infertility Treatments Success Rates Aizawl, Mizoram
The bar graph below depicts how successful are infertility treatments among newly married couples and individuals. The following treatments are given based on the individual’s infertility conditions either medically, physically, or environmentally. However, this success rate is dependent upon the individuals where some can achieve success in a single cycle of treatment while some achieve it after the 2nd or the 3rd cycle of the treatments.
Now discussing female infertility, its causes, symptoms, and available female infertility treatments.
Female infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant after one year of having unprotected sex, also women with recurrent pregnancy loss (having two or more spontaneous miscarriages) are considered infertile. This female inability to get pregnant is caused by various factors such as advancing age.
A normal fertile women’s body releases an egg from one of her ovaries external icon during intercourse orgasm. Then a man’s sperm joins with the egg along the way to fertilize the egg. The fertilized egg then goes through fallopian tubes toward the uterus (womb). The embryo attaches to the inside of the uterus known as implantation.
Causes of female infertility
There are various conditions affecting any one of these organs that can contribute to female infertility. Some of these conditions are listed below:
- Advanced Age– Aging disrupts ovarian function.
- Abnormal Menstrual Cycle– On average women’s menstrual cycle is 28 days or regular predictable periods may occur every 21 to 35 days which is likely to reflect ovulation. However, a woman with irregular periods may not be ovulating.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)- PCOS causes women to not ovulate or makes irregular ovulation. Some women with PCOS have an elevated level of testosterone causing acne and excess hair growth. PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility.
- Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR)– DOR means there are only fewer eggs remaining in the ovaries than expected for a given age. DOR can result from congenital (condition present at birth), medical, surgical, or unexplained causes.
- Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA)– FHA may be caused by excessive exercise, stress, and weight loss. It is sometimes associated with eating disorders such as anorexia. FHA contributes to female infertility.
- Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI)– POI is a condition of premature menopause (at an early age). POI occurs when a woman’s ovaries fail to function before she turns 40 years of age. Also, chemotherapy or pelvic radiation therapy, and certain medical conditions may cause POI. However, about 5% to 10% of women with POI conceive naturally and have a normal pregnancy.
- Abnormal hypothalamus and pituitary glands functions- The hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain produce hormones that maintain normal ovarian function. Production of too much of the hormone prolactin by the pituitary gland (often as the result of a benign pituitary gland tumor), or improper function of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, may cause a woman not to ovulate.
- Fallopian tube obstruction: History of pelvic infection, ruptured appendix, gonorrhea, chlamydia, endometriosis, or prior abdominal surgery are the risk factors for blocked fallopian tubes, swollen.
Symptoms of female infertility
The main symptom of female infertility is the inability in getting pregnant. A long menstrual cycle that’s 35 days or more, or too short that is less than 21 days, irregular periods, or no periods absent indicates that you’re not ovulating. There might be no other signs or symptoms of female infertility.
Tests to determine female infertility
- Ovulation predictor kit: Female ovulation is determined by using an ovulation predictor kit and a blood test to know the woman’s progesterone level on day 21 of her menstrual cycle.
- Ovarian function markers: There are several tests for evaluating a woman’s ovarian function. However, there is no single test that is a perfect predictor of fertility. The most commonly used markers of ovarian function include follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) value on day 3 to 5 of the menstrual cycle, anti-müllerian hormone value (AMH), and antral follicle count (AFC) using a transvaginal ultrasound.
- Hysterosalpingogram test: Fallopian tube is examined by a hysterosalpingogram. Hysterosalpingogram is an X-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes. A radiologist injects dye into the uterus via the cervix and simultaneously takes X-ray pictures and checks if the dye moves freely through fallopian tubes indicating they are open.
- Chromopertubation test: It is similar to a hysterosalpingogram but is done in the operating room at the time of laparoscopic surgery. A blue-colored dye is passed through the cervix into the uterus and through the fallopian tubes. It determines whether the fallopian tubes are open and assesses if they are dilated.
- Transvaginal ultrasound tests: Based on the woman’s infertility symptoms, the uterus is evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound to look for fibroids or other problems (intrauterine adhesions, endometrial polyps, adenomyosis, and congenital anomalies of the uterus). A sonohystogram or hysteroscopy is also performed to further evaluate the uterine environment.
Now let’s discuss male infertility, its causes, symptoms, tests
Male infertility means a man’s inability to start a pregnancy with his female partner after having regular unprotected intercourse for almost a year due to various infertility conditions.
Causes of male infertility
Male Infertility can be caused by different factors, some of the common causes of male infertility are discussed below:
Disruption of testicular or ejaculatory function causes:
- Varicocele: Condition where the veins in a man’s testicle are enlarged or swollen which affects the number or shape of the sperm (morphology).
- Trauma to the testes: This condition can affect sperm production and result in low sperm count.
- Excess alcohol use, smoking, anabolic steroid use, and illicit drug use cause infertility.
- Cancer treatment: Certain types of chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery to remove one or both testicles causes male infertility.
- Conditions like diabetes, cystic fibrosis, types of autoimmune disorders, and types of infections can cause testicular failure.
Hormonal disorders causing male infertility
- Abnormal hypothalamus or pituitary glands functions: The hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain produce hormones that govern normal testicular function. Therefore, the production of excess prolactin by the pituitary gland (presence of a benign pituitary gland tumor), or other conditions that damage or impair the function of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland may result in low or no sperm production at all. These conditions may include benign and malignant (cancerous) pituitary tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, exposure to too much estrogen, exposure to too much testosterone, Cushing’s syndrome, and chronic use of medications called glucocorticoids.
Genetic disorders causing male infertility
- Genetic conditions like Klinefelter’s syndrome, Y-chromosome microdeletion, myotonic dystrophy, and other less common genetic disorders can cause no sperm production or low numbers of sperm production.
Signs and Symptoms of male infertility
The main sign and symptom of male infertility is the inability to impregnate his women. Some mild symptoms can be noticed by an underlying problem such as an inherited disorder, hormonal imbalance, dilated veins around the testicle, or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm. Some signs and symptoms of male infertility are noticed by:
- Sexual function problems– Problems such as trouble in ejaculation or small volumes of fluid ejaculated reduced sexual desire or erectile dysfunction.
- Pain, swelling, or a lump in the testicle area
- Recurrent respiratory infections
- Inability to smell
- Abnormal breast growth (gynecomastia)
- Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality
- A low sperm count below 15*106 sperm /mL of semen or a total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate.
- Read here for more details: What are the signs of Infertility in Males?
Tests to determine the exact reasons for male infertility
Male infertility reasons can be specifically determined from the semen analysis test. When a semen analysis is performed, our trained expert checks your sperm count, sperm morphology, sperm motility, and other characteristics. Semen analysis helps determine if and how male factors are contributing to infertility.
If the first semen analysis seems normal, our doctor will repeat the second round of tests for 100% confirmation of the results. Two normal test results indicate that you have no significant infertility problems. If something in the results looks unusual, your doctor might order more tests to pinpoint the exact reason.
Surgery: If you don’t have any semen or sperm at all, it might be because of a blockage in your “plumbing” that can be corrected with surgical procedures such as PESA, TESA, TESE, MESA, etc.
- Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): TESA is performed on men for IVF/ICSI process or Semen Cryopreservation. The procedure is done under local anesthesia in the operating room or office and is coordinated with their female partner’s egg retrieval. A needle is inserted in the testicle and tissue/sperm are aspirated. TESA is best in men with obstructive azoospermia (vasectomy). Occasionally, TESA doesn’t provide enough tissue/sperm and an open testis biopsy is needed.
- Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA): PESA is performed for men for IVF/ICSI. It is the best option in men with obstructive azoospermia from either a prior vasectomy or infection. It is done under local anesthesia in the operating room or office and is coordinated with their female partner’s egg retrieval. The urologist sticks a needle attached to a syringe into the epididymis, then gently withdraws the fluid
- Testicular sperm extraction (TESE): TESE is a common technique to diagnose the cause of azoospermia and extract enough tissues for sperm extraction. The process involves making a small incision in the testis, then examining the tubules for the presence of the sperm. It is either done as a scheduled procedure or is coordinated with their female partner’s egg retrieval. It is performed with sedation but can be performed in the office with local anesthesia alone. Patients usually cryopreserve sperm during this procedure for future IVF/ICSI. MicroTESE is a more refined form of the TESE procedure.
- Microepididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA): MESA procedure also retrieved sperm from the epididymal tubes utilizing a surgical microscope, it yields high amounts of motile sperms.
MESA is the best option for men who have vasal or epididymal obstruction (s/p vasectomy, congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens). It is either done as a scheduled procedure or is coordinated with their female partner’s egg retrieval. MESA is done with general anesthesia. Patients can usually cryopreserve sperm during this procedure for future IVF/ICSI.
- Microdissection TESE (microTESE): MicroTESE is the best procedure for sperm extraction for those men who have a sperm production problem and are azoospermic. MicroTESE is performed with general anesthesia using a surgical microscope. MicroTESE is carefully coordinated with the female partner’s egg retrieval and is performed the day before egg retrieval. MicroTESE has significantly improved sperm retrieval rates in azoospermic men and is a safer procedure since less testicular tissue is removed. Patients can cryopreserve sperm during this procedure for future IVF/ICSI and build their families.
- Physical Exam: With surgical procedures, abnormal formations of veins above the testicle (Variocele) can get it corrected through surgery.
- Hormone Evaluation: Sperm production is controlled by testosterone and other hormones. Although hormones are not the main problem in about 97% of infertile men. Experts do the best test to find out the reason and treat or restore them.
- Genetic Testing: Genetic testing identifies specific obstacles to fertility and problems with your sperm.
- Anti-Sperm Antibodies: Some men make abnormal antibodies that attack the sperm on the way to the egg, which keeps your partner from getting pregnant. Men with these conditions have normal sperm in their testicles, but the sperm in semen is either missing, in low numbers, or abnormal.
Available male infertility treatments in Aizawl, Mizoram
Male infertility can be treated or restored with medication, surgical procedures, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by a urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer IUI, IVF, or ICSI to help overcome male factor infertility.
Now let’s discuss the male and female infertility treatments in detail:
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments
ART procedures required the assistance of donor eggs, donor sperm, or donated embryos. Donor eggs are sometimes used for women who cannot produce eggs or do not have viable eggs. Also, donor eggs or donor sperm are sometimes used when the woman or man has a genetic disease that can be passed on to the baby. An infertile woman or couple may also use donor embryos. These are embryos that were either created by couples in infertility treatment or were created from donor sperm and donor eggs. The donated embryo is transferred to the uterus. The child will not be genetically related to either parent. Donor eggs, sperm, or embryos may also be used by same-sex couples.
Women with ovaries but no uterus may be able to use a gestational carrier. This may also be an option for women who shouldn’t become pregnant because of a serious health problem. In this case, a woman uses her own egg and it is fertilized by her partner’s sperm. Then, the embryo is placed inside the carrier’s uterus.
- In vitro fertilization (IVF): IVF involves fertilization of the female partner egg/donor egg (Donor egg bank) and the male partner sperm/donor sperm (Semen Cryopreservation) outside of the body that is in the Petri dishes in the laboratory. The Eggs and the sperm fused to develop into the best stage embryos. After three to five days, the embryo (or embryos) development is selected and then transferred into the woman’s uterus to align with the uterus lining and get conceived. IVF treatments are the best ART that is applied to both partners’ infertility conditions. For the complete process of IVF; read this: IVF Process step by step. The fertilityworld is the best fertility clinic that provides the highest IVF success rates at an affordable cost in Aizawl(Mizoram); IVF Cost in Aizawl, Mizoram. You can also see the IVF cost in big cities such as IVF Cost in Delhi, the Cost of IVF in Pune, IVF cost in Bangalore, etc.
Unused extra embryos can also be frozen for a future transfer. When a frozen or preserved embryo is thawed and transferred into a woman’s uterus it is called a frozen embryo transfer (FET).
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): ICSI is a type of IVF treatment that is often an approaching treatment for couples suffering from male infertility factor. ICSI procedures involve injecting a single sperm into the middle of the mature egg under the culture medium in a laboratory. ICSI treatments bypass infertility factors such as low sperm count, weak sperm motility, the thick membrane of the egg, etc. ICSI is much affordable in Aizawl (Mizoram) at the fertilityworld. You can see from here which is the best option; IVF VS ICSI.
- Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT): ZIFT also known as tubal embryo transfer is another ART method that is rarely used today. Similar to IVF, the ZIFT process involves fertilization in the laboratory. Then the very young embryo is transferred to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
- Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT): GIFT is also another ART method that involves transferring eggs and sperm into the woman’s fallopian tube and fertilization occurs in the woman’s body.
Other less invasive forms of male and female infertility treatments
Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
IUI is an infertility treatment that is often called artificial insemination. It improves the chances of fertilization by increasing the number of healthy sperm that reach the fallopian tubes when the woman is most fertile. IUI procedures involve, specially prepared sperm being inserted via injection into the woman’s uterus. Sometimes the woman is also treated with medicines that stimulate ovulation before IUI. IUI is the best option for treatment when a male partner the specific infertility factors such as:
- Mild male factor infertility.
- Couples experiencing infertility due to medical conditions like endometriosis or low sperm count or poor quality and quantity of sperm.
- Couples with unexplained infertility.
Medicine to treat female Infertility
The fertilityworld provides the best medicine to treat female infertility, they include:
- Clomiphene citrate (Clomid): It creates ovulation by acting on the pituitary gland. It is often used in women who have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It is also given to women with normal ovulation to produce multiple mature eggs. This medicine is taken orally.
- Letrozole: It is also frequently used off-label to create ovulation. It makes the brain naturally make more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). It is often used in a woman with PCOS, and in women with normal ovulation to give multiple mature eggs. It is taken orally.
- Human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG: It is an injectable medication given to women who don’t ovulate because of pituitary gland problems. hMG acts directly on the ovaries to stimulate the development of mature eggs.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH: FSH is an injectable hormonal medication that works similarly to hMG. It stimulates the development of mature eggs within the ovaries.
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs and GnRH antagonists: It acts on the pituitary gland to prevent a woman from ovulating. They are used during IVF cycles or help in preparing a woman’s uterus for an embryo transfer. These medications are usually injected or given with a nasal spray.
- Metformin: It is used for women who have insulin resistance or diabetes and PCOS. Metformin helps lower the high levels of male hormones in women with these conditions. This helps the body to ovulate.
- Bromocriptine and Cabergoline: These medicines are given to women with ovulation problems because of high levels of prolactin. These medications are taken by mouth.
Fertility Medicine to restore male infertility: Fertility drugs such as hormone treatment may help if you have a hormone disorder. Hormone imbalances can affect how sperm develop. They may be caused by a problem in how the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testes interact. Hormonal drugs include gonadotropin therapy or antibiotics.
What is preimplantation genetic testing (PGT)
Preimplantation genetic testing is a procedure used to identify genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities in embryos created during an IVF cycle and testing is done on the embryo before transferring them into the uterus. One or more cells are biopsied from each embryo and sent for testing. PGT techniques allow the physician to pick the embryos that are freed from a selected genetic condition or chromosome abnormalities for transfer. These procedures used to be referred to as preimplantation genetic screening and preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD): PGD reduces the risk/prevents passing on inherited genetic conditions of the parents to their child. PGD is best specifically for cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia and structural changes in a parent’s chromosomes. Families may also use PGD when a member of the family needs a bone marrow donor, as a way to have a child who can provide matching stem cells.
Fertile couples with a family history of a genetic condition who want to reduce the risk of having another child with significant health issues or early death can use this opportunity. Through generally available genetic screening, however, occasionally couples who are seeking fertility treatment are found to be at risk of passing on an inherited condition, and PGD may be an option for them.
PGD is available for almost any inherited condition for which the exact mutation is known. A unique test must be developed for each couple, however. This test design may take up to several months to complete before beginning an IVF cycle.
PGD uses IVF procedures, in which multiple eggs are matured and retrieved. The resulting embryos are grown in culture until the six-to-eight-cell stage, which is day three of embryo development. At this point, the embryo is biopsied with the removal of one to two cells. This process does not damage the cells remaining within the embryo. The isolated cells are evaluated for specific genetic conditions. Embryos that are found to be unaffected are transferred back to the woman’s uterus on day five of embryo development.
Are you hopeful of having a child despite infertility?
If you’re a married couple trying to have a baby but not conceiving after having regular unprotected intercourse for about a year. You can be infertile and needs fertility specialists to take care of your family building. To tackle such couples, the fertilityworld which is rated as the best fertility clinic in Aizawl, Mizoram provides priceless support, services, treatments, and family building related to all the infertility factors with free consultations. Therefore, we recommend couples to contact us today without delaying infertility duration and before you advance in age. Contact us today! We’re available 24*7 at your service.
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